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    The research on the Energy Minimization Multi-Scale (EMMS) model started at almost three decades ago by Prof. Jinghai Li, mentored by Prof. Mooson Kwauk. That gives birth to the Group and its name. The EMMS Group has since committed to the study of meso-scale modeling for multiphase, complex systems and its applications in process engineering. The EMMS model features the use of certain stability condition to close hydrodynamic equations with the principle of Compromise in Competiton. To verify this stability condition, a Pseudo-Particle Modeling(PPM) was proposed to investigate the dominant mechanisms inherent in multiphase flow systems. By combining the EMMS drag model and computational fluid dynamics (CFD), the multi-scale CFD method was developed to improve the accuracy and efficiency of the simulation for multiphase systems.

     With the extension of the EMMS model to gas-liquid flow, granular flow, emulsion systems etc., the EMMS Group then constructed a Multi-Objective Variational (MOV) method of general significance, which was further extended to the EMMS Paradigm. The Paradigm is characterized by the structural consistency among the problems, models, software and hardware to achieve high accuracy, capacity and efficiency (ACE) for simulation of multiphase systems. In order to implement the EMMS Paradigm in industrial practice, a set of multi-scale parallel computation software and hardware was developed, which paves the way to Virtual Process Engineering (VPE) – realtime simulation of industrial multiphase systems with high accuracy and online integration with experiment, measurement and control systems.

    Along with these developments, the group gradually recognized that meso-scales, the scales between the elements and systems on a certain level, are the core of meso-sciences. Due to its universality and importance, the meso-sciences is now the focus of the fundamental research of the EMMS Group, and VPE is the objective for applied research in the fields of, e.g., fluidized beds, slurry beds, bubble columns, granular flows and turbulent flows.

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State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Complex Systems
Institute of Process Eingineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences